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Health, Safety & Physical Education 

Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education

Pennsylvania Department of Education

22 Pa. Code, Chapter 4, Appendix D (#006-276)  Final Form-Annex A              July 18, 2002

Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education

XXVIII. TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction………………………………………….…… XXIX. THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

Concepts of Health............................................................ 10.1. Physical Activity....................................................…....... 10.4.

A. Stages of Growth and Development A. Physical Activities That Promote Health and     

B. Interaction of Body Systems Fitness

C. Nutrition B. Effects of Regular Participation

D. Alcohol, Tobacco and Chemical Substances C. Responses of the Body Systems to Physical

E. Health Problems and Disease Prevention Activity

D. Physical Activity Preferences

E. Physical Activity and Motor Skill Improvement

F. Physical Activity and Group Interaction

Healthful Living….….............................................…… 10.2. Concepts, Principles and Strategies of Movement ……10.5.

A. Health Practices, Products and Services A. Movement Skills and Concepts

B. Health Information and Consumer Choices B. Motor Skill Development

C. Health Information and the Media C. Practice Strategies

D. Decision-making Skills D. Principles of Exercise/Training

E. Health and the Environment E. Scientific Principles That Affect Movement

F. Game Strategies

Glossary…………………………………………………… XXX.

Safety and Injury Prevention ...........................………… 10.3.

A. Safe/Unsafe Practices

B. Emergency Responses/Injury Management

C. Strategies to Avoid/Manage Conflict

D. Safe Practices in Physical Activity

Academic Standards for Health, Safety & Physical Education

XXIX. INTRODUCTION

This document includes Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education in these categories:

  • •                      10.1 Concepts of Health ◊ 10.4 Physical Activity
  • •                      10.2 Healthful Living ◊ 10.5 Concepts, Principles and Strategies of Movement
  • •                      10.3 Safety and Injury Prevention

 

The Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education describe what students should know and be able to do by the end of third, sixth, ninth and twelfth grade. The standards are sequential across the grade levels and reflect the increasing complexity and rigor that students are expected to achieve. The Standards define the content for planned instruction that will result in measurable gains for all students in knowledge and skill.  School entities will use these standards to develop local school curriculum and assessments that will meet the needs of the students.

The Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education provide students with the knowledge and skills that will enable them to achieve and maintain a physically active and healthful life.  The attainment of these standards will favorably impact their lives and the lives of those around them.  By becoming and remaining physically, mentally, socially and emotionally healthy, students will increase their chances of achieving to their highest academic potential.

The Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education provide parents with specific information about the knowledge and skills students should be developing as they progress through their educational programs.  With the standards serving as clearly defined targets, parents, students, teachers and community members will be able to become partners in helping children achieve educational success.

A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.

Academic Standards for Health, Safety & Physical Education

10. 1. Concepts of Health

10.1.3. GRADE 3

10.1.6. GRADE 6

10.1.9. GRADE 9

10.1.12. GRADE 12

Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

A. Identify and describe the stages of

A. Describe growth and development

A. Analyze factors that impact growth

A. Evaluate factors that impact growth

      growth and development.

changes that occur between

and development between

and development during adulthood 

• infancy

      childhood and adolescence and

adolescence and adulthood.

       and late adulthood.  

• childhood

      identify factors that can influence

• relationships (e.g.,

• acute and chronic illness

• adolescence

these changes.

dating, friendships, peer

• communicable and non-

• adulthood

• education

pressure)

communicable disease

• late adulthood

• socioeconomic

• interpersonal communication • risk factors (e.g., physical inactivity, substance abuse, intentional/unintentional injuries, dietary patterns) • abstinence • STD and HIV prevention • community

• health status • relationships (e.g., marriage, divorce, loss) • career choice • aging process •    retirement

B.  Identify and know the location and        function of the major body organs and        systems.

B.  Identify and describe the structure and function of the major body systems.  • nervous

B. Analyze the interdependence existing among  the body systems.

B. Evaluate factors that impact the body systems and apply protective/ preventive strategies.

• circulatory

• muscular

 

• fitness level

• respiratory

• integumentary

 

• environment (e.g., pollutants,

• muscular

• urinary

 

available health care)

• skeletal

• endocrine

 

• health status (e.g., physical,

• digestive

• reproductive • immune

 

mental, social) • nutrition 

 

Academic Standards for Health, Safety & Physical Education

C.  Explain the role of the food guide             

C. Analyze nutritional concepts that

C. Analyze factors that impact nutritional

C. Analyze factors that impact nutritional

      pyramid in helping people eat a                

impact health.

choices of adolescents.

choices of adults.

healthy diet.

• caloric content of foods

• body image

• cost

• food groups

• relationship of food intake and

• advertising

• food preparation (e.g., time,

• number of servings

physical activity (energy output)

• dietary guidelines 

skills)

• variety of food

• nutrient requirements 

• eating disorders

• consumer skills (e.g.,

• nutrients

• label reading • healthful food selection

• peer influence • athletic goals

understanding food labels, evaluating fads) • nutritional knowledge • changes in nutritional requirements (e.g., age, physical activity level)  

D. Know age appropriate drug 

D. Explain factors that influence 

D. Analyze prevention and intervention

D. Evaluate issues relating to the 

      information.

      childhood and adolescent drug use.

      strategies in relation to adolescent and

       use/non-use of drugs.

• definition of drugs

• peer influence

adult drug use.

• psychology of addiction

• effects of drugs

• body image (e.g., steroids,

• decision-making/refusal skills

• social impact (e.g., cost,

• proper use of medicine

enhancers)

• situation avoidance

relationships)

• healthy/unhealthy risk-taking (e.g.

• social acceptance

• goal setting

• chemical use and fetal

inhalant use, smoking)

• stress

• professional assistance (e.g.,

development

• skills to avoid drugs

• media influence • decision-making/refusal skills • rules, regulations and laws • consequences

medical, counseling. support groups) • parent involvement

• laws relating to alcohol, tobacco and chemical substances • impact on the individual • impact on the community

E. Identify types and causes of common       health problems of children. • infectious diseases (e.g., colds, flu,

E. Identify health problems that can occur throughout life and describe ways to prevent them.

E. Analyze how personal choice, disease       and genetics can impact health      maintenance and disease prevention.

E. Identify and analyze factors that       influence the prevention and control of health problems.

chickenpox)

• diseases (e.g., cancer, diabetes,

 

• research

• noninfectious diseases (e.g., asthma, hay fever, allergies, lyme disease) • germs

STD/HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular disease) • preventions (i.e. do not smoke,

 

• medical advances • technology • government policies/regulations

• pathogens

maintain proper weight, eat a

 

 

• heredity

balanced diet, practice sexual abstinence, be physically active)

 

 

 

Academic Standards for Health, Safety & Physical Education

10.2. Healthful Living

10.2.3. GRADE 3

10.2.6. GRADE 6

10.2.9. GRADE 9

10.2.12. GRADE 12

Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

A. Identify personal hygiene practices and community helpers that promote health and prevent the spread of disease. B. Identify health-related information. • signs and symbols • terminology • products and services C. Identify media sources that influence         health and safety. D. Identify the steps in a decision-making process. E. Identify environmental factors that affect health. • pollution (e.g., air, water, noise, soil) • waste disposal • temperature extremes • insects/animals A. Explain the relationship between        personal health practices and          individual well-being. • immunizations • health examinations B.  Explain the relationship between health-related information and consumer choices. • dietary guidelines/food selection • sun exposure guidelines/ sunscreen selection C. Explain the media’s effect on health and safety issues. D. Describe and apply the steps of a         decision-making process to health and safety issues. E. Analyze environmental factors that       impact health.  • indoor air quality (e.g., second­hand smoke, allergens) • chemicals, metals, gases (e.g., lead, radon, carbon monoxide) • radiation • natural disasters A. Identify and describe health care products and services that impact adolescent health practices. B. Analyze the relationship between health-related information and adolescent consumer choices. • tobacco products • weight control products C. Analyze media health and safety        messages and describe their impact on personal health and safety. D. Analyze and apply a decision-making  process to adolescent health and safety issues. E. Explain the interrelationship between        the environment and personal health. • ozone layer/skin cancer • availability  of health care/ individual health • air pollution/respiratory disease • breeding environments/ lyme disease/west nile virus A. Evaluate health care products and        services that impact adult health  practices. B. Assess factors that impact adult health consumer choices. • access to health information • access to health care • cost • safety C. Compare and contrast the positive and negative effects of the media on adult personal health and safety. D. Examine and apply a decision-making process to the development of short and long-term health goals. E. Analyze the interrelationship between      environmental factors and community health. • public health policies and laws/health promotion and disease prevention • individual choices/maintenance of environment • recreational opportunities/ health status •

 

 

Academic Standards for Health, Safety & Physical Education

10.3. Safety and Injury Prevention

10.3.3. GRADE 3

10.3.6 GRADE 6

10.3.9. GRADE 9

10.3.12. GRADE 12

Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

A. Recognize safe/unsafe practices in the home, school and community. • general (e.g., fire, electrical, animals) • modes of transportation    (e.g., pedestrian, bicycle, vehicular) • outdoor (e.g., play, weather, water) • safe around people (e.g., safe/ unsafe touch, abuse, stranger, bully) B.  Recognize emergency situations and explain appropriate responses.    • importance of remaining calm • how to call for help • simple assistance procedures • how to protect self C.  Recognize conflict situations and        identify strategies to avoid or resolve. • walk away • I-statements • refusal skills • adult intervention

A. Explain and apply safe practices in the home, school and community. • emergencies (e.g., fire, natural disasters) • personal safety (e.g., home alone, latch key, harassment) • communication (e.g., telephone, Internet) • violence prevention (e.g., gangs, weapons) B.   Know and apply appropriate      emergency responses. • basic first aid • Heimlich maneuver • universal precautions C.  Describe strategies to avoid or manage conflict and violence. • anger management • peer mediation • reflective listening • negotiation

A. Analyze the role of individual responsibility for safe practices and        injury prevention in the home,           school and community. • modes of transportation        (e.g., pedestrian, bicycle, vehicular, passenger, farm vehicle, all-terrain vehicle) • violence prevention in school • self-protection in the home • self-protection in public places B.  Describe and apply strategies for        emergency and long-term      management of injuries. • rescue breathing • water rescue • self-care • sport injuries C.  Analyze and apply strategies to avoid  or manage conflict and violence during adolescence. • effective negotiation • assertive behavior

A. Assess the personal and legal consequences of unsafe practices in the       home, school or community. • loss of personal freedom • personal injury • loss of income • impact on others • loss of motor vehicle operator’s license B. Analyze and apply strategies for the management of injuries. • CPR • advanced first aid C. Analyze the impact of violence on the        victim and surrounding community.

 

Academic Standards for Health, Safety & Physical Education

D. Identify and use safe practices in physical activity settings (e.g.,       proper equipment, knowledge of   rules, sun safety, guidelines of safe       play, warm-up, cool-down).

D. Analyze the role of individual responsibility for safety during physical activity.

D. Analyze the role of individual responsibility for safety during organized group activities.

D. Evaluate the benefits, risks and safety factors associated with self-selected life-long physical activities.

 

Academic Standards for Health, Safety & Physical Education

10.4. Physical Activity

10.4.3. GRADE 3

10.4.6. GRADE 6

10.4.9. GRADE 9

10.4.12. GRADE 12

Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

A. Identify and engage in physical       activities that promote physical fitness and health. B. Know the positive and negative        effects of regular participation in moderate to vigorous physical activities.                                                   C.  Know and recognize changes in body responses during  moderate to vigorous physical activity. • heart rate • breathing rate

A. Identify and engage in moderate to      vigorous physical activities that         contribute to physical fitness and   health. B.  Explain the effects of regular        participation in moderate to vigorous  physical activities on the body systems. C.  Identify and apply ways to monitor and assess the body’s response to moderate to vigorous physical activity. • heart rate monitoring • checking blood pressure  • fitness assessment

A. Analyze and engage in physical      activities that are developmentally/         individually appropriate and support achievement of personal fitness and activity goals. B. Analyze the effects of regular       participation in moderate to vigorous        physical activities in relation to      adolescent health improvement. • stress management • disease prevention • weight management C. Analyze factors that affect the       responses of body systems during         moderate to vigorous physical      activities. • exercise (e.g., climate, altitude, location, temperature) • healthy fitness zone • individual fitness status (e.g., cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility) • drug/substance use/abuse

A. Evaluate and engage in an individualized physical activity plan that supports achievement of personal fitness and activity goals and promotes life-long participation.   B. Analyze the effects of regular       participation in a self-selected      program of moderate to vigorous          physical activities. • social • physiological • psychological C.  Evaluate how changes in adult health status may affect the responses of the body systems during moderate to vigorous physical activity. • aging • injury  • disease

 

Academic Standards for Health, Safety & Physical Education

D. Identify likes and dislikes related to participation in physical activities. E. Identify reasons why regular        participation in physical activities improves motor skills. F. Recognize positive and negative interactions of small group activities.  • roles (e.g., leader, follower) • cooperation/sharing • on task participation

D. Describe factors that affect childhood  physical activity preferences. • enjoyment • personal interest • social experience • opportunities to learn new activities • parental preference • environment E. Identify factors that have an impact on the relationship between regular      participation in physical activity        and the degree of motor skill         improvement.  • success-oriented activities • school-community resources • variety of activities • time on task F. Identify and describe positive        and negative interactions of group       members in physical activities.  • leading • following • teamwork • etiquette • adherence to rules

D. Analyze factors that affect physical  activity preferences of adolescents. • skill competence • social benefits • previous experience • activity confidence E. Analyze factors that impact on the relationship between regular participation in physical activity and motor skill improvement. • personal choice • developmental differences • amount of physical activity • authentic practice F. Analyze the effects of positive and      negative interactions of adolescent      group members in physical activities.  • group dynamics • social pressure

D. Evaluate factors that affect physical  activity and exercise preferences of adults. • personal challenge • physical benefits • finances • motivation • access to activity • self-improvement E. Analyze the interrelationships among regular participation in physical activity, motor skill improvement and the selection and engagement in lifetime physical activities. F. Assess and use strategies for enhancing adult group interaction in physical activities. • shared responsibility • open communication • goal setting

 

Academic Standards for Health, Safety & Physical Education

10.5. Concepts, Principles and Strategies of Movement

10.5.3. GRADE 3

10.5.6. GRADE 6

10.5.9. GRADE 9

10.5.12. GRADE 12

Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to:

A. Recognize and use basic movement

A. Explain and apply the basic 

A. Describe and apply the components of 

A. Apply knowledge of movement

      skills and concepts.

movement skills and concepts to

      skill-related fitness to movement

skills, skill-related fitness and

•   locomotor movements (e.g., run, 

create and perform movement

       performance.

movement concepts to identify and

       leap, hop)

sequences and advanced skills.

• agility

evaluate physical activities that

• non-locomotor movements (e.g., 

 

• balance

promote personal lifelong

bend, stretch, twist)

 

• coordination

participation.

• manipulative movements (e.g., 

 

• power

 

throw, catch, kick)

 

• reaction time

 

• relationships (e.g., over, under, 

 

• speed

 

beside)

 

 

 

• combination movements (e.g., 

 

 

 

       locomotor, non-locomotor,

 

 

 

              manipulative)  

 

 

 

• space awareness (e.g., self-space,

 

 

 

levels, pathways, directions)

 

 

 

• effort (e.g., speed, force)

 

 

 

B.  Recognize and describe the concepts of motor skill development using appropriate vocabulary. • form • developmental differences

B. Identify and apply the concepts of motor skill development to a variety of basic skills. • transfer between skills • selecting relevant cues • types of feedback

B.   Describe and apply concepts of motor skill development that impact the quality of increasingly complex movement. • response selection • stages of learning a motor skill

B.   Incorporate and synthesize knowledge of motor skill development concepts to improve the quality of motor skills. • open and closed skills • short-term and long-term

• critical elements • feedback

• movement efficiency • product (outcome/result)

(i.e. verbal cognitive, motor, automatic) • types of skill (i.e. discrete, serial, continuous)

memory • aspects of good performance

 

Academic Standards for Health, Safety & Physical Education

C.  Know the function of practice.

C.  Describe the relationship between        practice and skill development.

C. Identify and apply practice strategies       for skill improvement. 

C. Evaluate the impact of practice strategies on skill development and      improvement.

D. Identify and use principles of exercise       to improve movement and fitness        activities. • frequency/how often to exercise • intensity/how hard to exercise • time/how long to exercise • type/what kind of exercise E. Know and describe scientific principles       that affect movement and skills using      appropriate vocabulary. • gravity • force production/absorption • balance • rotation F. Recognize and describe game strategies      using appropriate vocabulary. • faking/dodging • passing/receiving • move MOVING to be open • defending space • following rules of play

D. Describe and apply the principles of        exercise to the components of health-related and skill-related fitness. • cardiorespiratory endurance • muscular strength • muscular endurance • flexibility • body composition E. Identify and use scientific principles       that affect basic movement and skills using appropriate vocabulary. • Newton’s Laws of Motion • application of force • static/dynamic balance • levers • flight F. Identify and apply game strategies to basic games and physical activities. • give and go • one on one • peer communication

D. Identify and describe the principles of        training using appropriate vocabulary. • specificity • overload • progression • aerobic/anaerobic • circuit/interval • repetition/set E. Analyze and apply scientific and        biomechanical principles to complex        movements. • centripetal/centrifugal force • linear motion • rotary motion • friction/resistance • equilibrium • number of moving segments F. Describe and apply game strategies to complex games and physical activities. • offensive strategies • defensive strategies • time management

D. Incorporate and synthesize knowledge of exercise principles, training principles and health and skill-related fitness components to create a fitness program for  personal use. E. Evaluate movement forms for       appropriate application of scientific   and biomechanical principles. • efficiency of movement • mechanical advantage • kinetic energy • potential energy • inertia • safety F. Analyze the application of game strategies for different categories of physical activities. • individual • team • lifetime • outdoor 

 

XXX. GLOSSARY

Abstinence: Choosing not to do something or completely giving something up in order to gain something. Acute illness: A health condition of sudden onset, sharp rises and short course. Adolescence: The period of life beginning with puberty and ending with completed growth.  Aerobic: Physical activity or exercise done at a steady pace for an extended period of time so that the heart can

supply as much oxygen as the body needs (e.g., walking, running, swimming, cycling).

Agility: A component of physical fitness that relates to the ability to rapidly change the position of the entire body in space with speed and accuracy.

AIDS     Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome:  a condition that results when infection with HIV causes a breakdown of the body’s ability to fight other infections.

Allergen: A substance that stimulates the production of antibodies and subsequently results in allergic reactions  (e.g., mold spores, cat/dog dander, dust).

Anaerobic: Physical activity or exercise done in short, fast bursts so that the heart cannot supply oxygen as fast as

the body needs (e.g., sprinting, weightlifting, football).

Assertive: The expression of thoughts and feelings without experiencing anxiety or threatening others.

Automatic Stage of Learning: Movement responses flow and the individual can focus on what to do without thinking about it.

Balance: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the maintenance of equilibrium while

stationary or moving.

Biomechanical principles:

The science concerned with the action of forces, internal or external, on the living body.

 

Body composition:

A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the percentage of fat tissue and lean tissue in the body.

 

Body systems:

Anatomically or functionally related parts of the body (e.g., skeletal, nervous, immune, circulatory systems).

 

Caloric content:

The amount of energy supplied by food.  The more calories in the food, the more fattening.

 

Cardiorespiratory fitness:

A health related component of physical fitness relating to the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity.

 

Centrifugal:

The force that seems to pull an object away from the center as it moves in a circle.

 

Centripetal:

                 The force that is required to keep an object moving around a circular path.

 

Chronic illness:

A health condition of long duration or frequent recurrence.

 

Circuit training:

Exercise program, similar to an obstacle course, in which the person goes from one place to another doing a different exercise at each place.

 

Closed:

Skills that are performed in an environment that does not change or that changes very little, such as archery or the foul shot in basketball.

 

Communicable:

Illness caused by pathogens that enter the body through direct or indirect contact and can be transmitted from one host to another.

 

Community helpers:

Any group or individual who plays a role in health promotion or disease prevention such as doctors, nurses, dentists, teachers, parents, firemen, policemen, trash collectors, animal control officers.

 

Continuous:

Two or more repetitions of the same skill such as dribbling in basketball or soccer.

 

 

Cool-down: Brief, mild exercise done after vigorous exercise to help the body safely return to a resting state.

Coordination: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability to use the senses together with body parts in performing motor tasks smoothly and accurately.

CPR: A first aid technique, which involves rescue breathing and chest (heart) compressions, that is used to

revive a person whose heart has stopped beating.

Critical elements: The important parts of a skill.

Decision-making process: An organized approach to making choices.

Developmental differences: Learners are at different levels in their motor, cognitive, emotional, social and physical development. 

The learners’ developmental status will affect their ability to learn or improve. Developmentally appropriate: Motor skill development and change THAT occur in an orderly, sequential fashion and is ARE age and

experience related.

Directions: Forward, backward, left, right, up, down.

Discrete: Single skill performed in isolation from other motor skills such as the soccer penalty kick and golf

stroke.

Dynamic balance: Equilibrium used when in motion, starting and stopping.

Eating disorders: Food-related dysfunction in which a person changes eating habits in a way that is harmful to the mind

or body (e.g., bulimia, anorexia nervosa).

Efficiency of movement: The state or quality of competence in performance with minimum expenditure of time and effort.

Equilibrium: State in which there is no change in the motion of a body.

Feedback:

Information given to the learner about how to improve or correct a movement.

Flexibility:

A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the range of motion available at a joint.

Food guide pyramid:

A visual tool used to help people plan healthy diets according to the Dietary Guidelines for   America.

Force:

Any external agent that causes a change in the motion of a body.

Form:

Manner or style of performing a movement according to recognized standards of technique.

Good performance:

The ability to correctly select what to do and the ability to execute the selection appropriately.

Health:

  A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being; not merely the absence of disease and   infirmity.

Health education:

Planned, sequential K-12 program of curricula and instruction that helps students develop knowledge, attitudes and skills related to the physical, mental, emotional and social dimensions of health.

Health-related fitness:

Components of physical fitness that have a relationship with good health.  Components are cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and body composition.

Heimlich maneuver:

A first aid technique that is used to relieve complete airway obstruction.

HIV:

Human immunodeficiency virus that infects cells of the immune system and other tissues and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

I-statement

A statement describing a specific behavior or event and the effect that behavior or event has on a person and the feelings that result.

Inertia:

A body at rest will remain at rest and a body in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by a force.

 

 

Inhalant:

Integumentary system: Intensity: Interval training: Kinetic: Levels: Linear motion: Locomotor movement:

Long-term memory: Manipulative movements:

Mechanical advantage: Media sources: Moderate physical activity:

Motor skills:

Chemicals that produce vapors that act on the central nervous system and alter a user’s moods, perceptions, feelings, personality and behavior such as airplane glue and aerosols. Body system composed of the skin, hair, nails and glands. How hard a person should exercise to improve fitness. An anaerobic exercise program that consists of runs of short distance followed by rest. Energy that an object possesses because it is moving, such as a pitched baseball or a person running. Positions of the body (e.g., high, medium, low).

Movement which occurs in a straight path. Movements producing physical displacement of the body, usually identified by weight transference via the feet. Basic locomotor steps are the walk, run, hop and jump as well as the irregular rhythmic combinations of the skip, slide and gallop.

Ability to recall information that was learned days or even years ago.

Control of objects with body parts and implements.  Action causes an object to move from one place to another. The ratio between the force put into a machine and the force that comes out of the same machine. Various forms of mass communication such as television, radio, magazines, newspapers and internet. Sustained, repetitive, large muscle movements (e.g., walking, running, cycling) done at less than 60%

of maximum heart rate for age.  Maximum heart rate is 220 beats per minute minus participant’s age. Non-fitness abilities that improve with practice and relate to one’s ability to perform specific sports  and other motor tasks (e.g., tennis serve, shooting a basketball).

 

Motor stage of learning: Movement skills:

Muscular endurance:

Muscular strength: Newton’s Laws of Motion:

municable:Nonlocomotor movement: Nutrient: Open:

Overload:

Pathways: Physical activity:

Individual is working to perfect the motor skill and makes conscious adjustments to the environment.

Proficiency in performing nonlocomotor, locomotor and manipulative movements that are the foundation for participation in physical activities. A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability of a muscle to continue to

perform without fatigue. A health-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability of the muscle to exert force. Three laws by Sir Isaac Newton that explain the relations between force and the motions produced by

them: The Law of Inertia, Force and Acceleration, Reacting Forces.       Illness that is not caused by a pathogen that is not transmitted from one host to another. Movements that do not produce physical displacement of the body.   A basic component of food that nourishes the body. Skill is performed in an environment that varies or is unpredictable such as the tennis forehand or the

soccer pass.

A principle of exercise that states that the only way to improve fitness is to exercise more than the normal. Patterns of travel while performing locomotor movements (e.g., straight, curved, zigzag). Bodily movement that is produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle and which substantially

increases energy expenditure.

Physical education: Physical fitness:

Planned, sequential, movement-based program of curricula and instruction that helps students develop knowledge, attitudes, motor skills, self-management skills and confidence needed to adapt and maintain a physically active life. A set of attributes that people have or achieve and that relate to their ability to perform physical activity. Generally accepted to consist of health-related fitness and skill-related fitness.

Potential:

Energy stored in a body because of its position such as the crouch position prior to a jump. 

Power:

A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the rate at which one can perform work.

Principles of exercise:

Guidelines to follow to obtain the maximum benefits from physical activity and exercise.

Principles of training:

Guidelines to follow to obtain the maximum benefits from an exercise plan.

Progression:

A principle of exercise that states that a person should start slowly and increase exercise gradually.

Reaction time:

A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the time elapsed between stimulation and the beginning of the response to it.

Reflective listening:

An active listening skill in which the individual lets others know he/she has heard and understands what has been said.

Refusal skills:

Systematic ways to handle situations in which a person wants to say no to an action and/or leave an environment that threatens health or safety, breaks laws, results in lack of respect for self and others or disobeys guidelines set by responsible adults.

Repetitions:

Number of times an exercise is repeated.

Rescue breathing:

Technique used to supply air to an individual who is not breathing.

Rotary motion:

Force that produces movement that occurs around an axis or center point such as a somersault.

Safety education: Planned, sequential program of curricula and instruction that helps students develop the knowledge, attitudes and confidence needed to protect them from injury. Self-space: All the space that the body or its parts can reach without traveling from a starting location. Serial: Two or more different skills performed with each other such as fielding a ball and throwing it or dribbling a basketball and shooting it. Set: A group of several repetitions. Short-term memory: Ability to recall recently learned information, such as within the past few seconds or minutes. Skill-related fitness: Consists of components of physical fitness that have a relationship with enhanced performance in sports and motor skills.  The components are agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time and speed. Specificity: A principle of exercise that states that specific kinds of exercises must be done to develop specific aspects of the body and specific aspects of fitness. Speed: A skill-related component of physical fitness that relates to the ability to perform a movement or cover a distance in a short period of time. Static balance: Maintaining equilibrium while holding a pose or remaining motionless. STD: Sexually transmitted disease. Universal precautions: An approach to infection control. All human blood and body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious. Warm-up: Brief, mild exercise that is done to get ready for more vigorous exercise. Verbal cognitive stage The individual is attempting to move from verbal instruction to trying to figure out how to actually do of learning: the skill.  The first attempts at the skill are generally mechanical and success is inconsistent.  The individual thinks through each step of the movement.

Vigorous physical activity: Sustained, repetitive, large muscle movements (e.g., running, swimming, soccer) done at 60% or more of maximum heart rate for age.  Maximum heart rate is 220 beats per minute minus the participant’s age. Activity makes person sweat and breathe hard.