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Academic Standards for History

Pennsylvania Department of Education

22 Pa. Code, Chapter 4, Appendix C (#006-275)   Final Form-Annex A July 18, 2002 

XXII. TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction…………………………………………….…. XXIII.

THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS

Historical Analysis and Skills Development……………... 8.1.

A. Chronological Thinking

B. Historical Comprehension

C. Historical Interpretation 

D. Historical Research

Pennsylvania History……………………….……………... 8.2.

A. Contributions of Individuals and Groups

B. Documents, Artifacts and Historical Places

C. Influences of Continuity and Change

D.  Conflict and Cooperation Among Groups

United States History………………..……………….……. 8.3.

A. Contributions of Individuals and Groups

B. Documents, Artifacts and Historical Places

C. Influences of Continuity and Change

D. Conflict and Cooperation Among Groups

World History...…………………………………………… 8.4.

A. Contributions of Individuals and Groups

B. Documents, Artifacts and Historical Places

C. Influences of Continuity and Change

D. Conflict and Cooperation Among Groups

Glossary……………………………………………………. XXIV.

XXIII. INTRODUCTION

This document includes Academic Standards for History that describe what students should know and be able to do in four areas:

  • •                      8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development
  • •                      8.2. Pennsylvania History
  • •                      8.3. United States History
  • •                      8.4. World History

 

The History Standards describe what students should know and be able to do at four grade levels (third, sixth, ninth and twelfth).  They reflect an understanding of chronological events and the application of historical thinking skills in viewing the human record.  These academic standards provide an organizing content for schools.

The Academic Standards for History are grounded in the Public School Code of 1949 which directs “… study in the history and government of that portion of America which has become the United States of America, and of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania…” Chapter 4 - Academic Standards and Assessment in § 4.21 (relating to elementary education; primary and intermediate levels) reinforces the School Code by indicating that the history of the United States and the history of the Commonwealth must be taught once by the end of elementary school. In addition, § 4.22 (relating to middle level education) indicates that planned instruction in the history and cultures of the United States, the Commonwealth and world shall be provided.  Chapter 4 also states that planned instruction shall be provided in the history and cultures of the United States, the Commonwealth and world in § 4.23 (relating to high school education.)

To support the intent of the Public School Code and Chapter 4, this document creates four standard categories. The four standard categories were designed to meld historical thinking (8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development) with historical understanding

(8.2. Pennsylvania History, 8.3. United States History, and 8.4. World History) to describe what students should know and be able to do.

Standard category 8.1. Historical Analysis and Skill Development provides the basis for learning the content within the other three standard categories. The intent of the history standards is to instill in each student an ability to comprehend chronology, develop historical comprehension, evaluate historical interpretation and to understand historical research. One should not view these standards as a list of facts to recall, rather as stated in the opening phrase to the Pennsylvania, United States and World standard categories, “Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze the interaction of cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations.”

These standards provide a history framework to permit every school and teacher to create planned instruction.  The content within this document is general and does not represent a course or even a portion thereof. Every school is encouraged to move beyond these standards. These standards are merely a starting point for the study of history. Planned instruction to meet these standards is required; however, the methodology, resources and time are not recommended nor implied.

History is a discipline that interprets and analyzes the past.  It is a narrative--a story.  In order to tell the story it is not sufficient to simply recall facts; it is also necessary to understand the context of the time and place and to apply historical thinking skills.  It is with this concept established, that the content delineated in Pennsylvania, United States and World histories should be approached. Having established the need to move beyond recall, it is the intent of these standards to give students throughout Pennsylvania a common cultural literacy.  

Pennsylvania, United States, and World History standard categories use the same four standard statements to guide teachers in developing planned instruction. The four standard statements are: (A) Political and Cultural Contributions of Individuals and Groups;

(B) Primary Documents, Material Artifacts and Historical Places; (C) How Continuity and Change Has Influenced History; (D) Conflict and Cooperation Among Social Groups and Organizations. The chart, Four Standard Statements within the Academic Standards for History: An Overview outlines standard statements and descriptors. 

Although the standard statements are similar across grade levels and standard categories, the degree of comprehension, changes in content and shifts in chronology differ. Although different grade levels outline different chronological periods within the standards, it  is intended that the specified chronological eras be linked to past learnings and that all eras be linked to the present. Linking to past learnings and the present is important, but so is addressing the standard statements in more depth. Therefore the following chronological time periods are established for the standard categories.

 Pennsylvania and United States History    World History

Grades 1-3 Beginnings to Present Grades 1-3 Beginnings to Present Grades 4-6 Beginnings to 1824 Grades 4-6 Beginnings to Present Grades 7-9 1787 to 1914 Grades 7-9 Beginnings to 1500 Grades 10-12 1890 to Present Grades 10-12 1450 to Present

Districts are encouraged to delineate each chronological period into less expansive historical eras within their planned instruction.   The content listed in grade levels 1-3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 should be age appropriate for the students in those grade levels and the reader should interpret each standard descriptor in that manner.

The Academic Standards for History consist of four standard categories (designated as 8.1., 8.2., 8.3., and 8.4.).  Each category has four standard statements (designated A, B, C, and D). Most standard statements have bulleted items known as standard descriptors. The standard descriptors are items within the document to illustrate and enhance the standard statement. The categories, statements and descriptors are the regulations. The descriptors many times are followed by an “e.g.”  The “e.g.’s” are examples to clarify what type of information could be taught.  These are suggestions and the choice of specific content is a local decision as is the method of instruction.

History along with civics and government, economics and geography are identified as social studies in Chapter 4. This identification is consistent with citizenship education in Chapter 49 and Chapter 354 (relating to certification of professional personnel; and preparation of professional educators.) Based on these regulations, social studies/citizenship programs should include the four sets of standards as an entity in developing a scope and sequence for curriculum and planned instruction. 

A glossary is included to assist the reader in understanding terminology contained in the standards.  

Four Standard Statements within the Academic Standards for History: An Overview

 

Political and Cultural Contributions of Individuals and Groups • Inhabitants (cultures, subcultures, groups) • Political Leaders (monarchs, governors, elected officials) • Military Leaders (generals, noted military figures) • Cultural and Commercial Leaders (entrepreneurs, corporate executives, artists, entertainers, writers) • Innovators and Reformers (inventors, philosophers, religious leaders, social change agents, improvers of technology)

How Continuity and Change Have Influenced History • Belief Systems and Religions (ideas, beliefs, values) • Commerce and Industry (jobs, trade, environmental change, labor systems, entertainment) • Innovations (ideas, technology, methods and processes) • Politics (political party systems, administration of government, rules, regulations and laws, political and judicial interpretation) • Transportation (methods of moving people and goods over time, transportation routes, circulation systems) • Settlement Patterns and Expansion (population density and diversity, settlement types, land use, colonization) • Social Organization (social structure, identification of social groups, families, groups and communities, education, school population, suffrage, civil rights) • Women’s Movement (changing roles of women, social and political movements, breaking barriers, role models)

 

Primary Documents, Material Artifacts and Historical Places • Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (government documents, letters and diaries, fiction and non-fiction works, newspapers and other media, folklore) • Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (historic sites and places, museums and museum collections, official and popular cultural symbols, material culture)

Conflict and Cooperation Among Social Groups and Organizations • Domestic Instability (political unrest, natural and man-made disasters, genocide) • Ethnic and Racial Relations (racism and xenophobia, ethnic and religious prejudices, collective and individual actions) • Immigration and Migration (causes of population shifts, xenophobia, intercultural activity) • Labor Relations (strikes and collective bargaining, working conditions over time, labor/management identity) • Military Conflicts (causes, conduct and impact of military conflicts, wars and rebellions)

 

Each standard statement above outlines its respective standard descriptors. Each standard descriptor suggests content that may be addressed. These are not all encompassing and local planned instruction is not limited to these examples.

 

 

8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development

8.1.3.  GRADE 3

8.1.6.  GRADE 6

8.1.9.  GRADE 9

8.1.12.  GRADE 12

Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to. . .

A. Understand chronological thinking and distinguish between past, present and future time. • Calendar time • Time lines • Continuity and change • Events (time and place) B. Develop an understanding of historical sources. • Data in historical maps • Visual data from maps and tables  • Mathematical data from graphs and tables  • Author or historical source

A. Understand chronological thinking and distinguish between past, present and future time. • Calendar time • Time lines • People and events in time • Patterns of continuity and change • Sequential order • Context for events B. Explain and analyze historical sources. • Literal meaning of a historical passage • Data in historical and contemporary maps, graphs and tables  • Author or historical source

 A. Analyze chronological thinking. • Difference between past, present and future • Sequential order of historical narrative • Data presented in time lines • Continuity and change • Context for events B. Analyze and interpret historical sources. • Literal meaning of historical passages • Data in historical and contemporary maps, graphs, and tables • Different historical perspectives

A. Evaluate chronological thinking. • Sequential order of historical narrative • Continuity and change • Context for events B. Synthesize and evaluate historical sources. • Literal meaning of historical passages • Data in historical and contemporary maps, graphs and tables • Different historical perspectives • Data presented in maps, graphs and tables

C. Understand fundamentals of historical interpretation. • Difference between fact and opinion • The existence of multiple points of view • Illustrations in historical stories • Causes and results

• Multiple historical perspectives • Visual evidence • Mathematical data from graphs and tables C. Explain the fundamentals of historical interpretation. • Difference between fact and opinion • Multiple points of view • Illustrations in historical stories • Causes and results

• Data from maps, graphs and tables • Visual data presented in historical evidence  C. Analyze the fundamentals of historical interpretation. • Fact versus opinion • Reasons/causes for multiple points   of view • Illustrations in historical  documents and stories

• Visual data presented in historical evidence C. Evaluate historical interpretation of events. • Impact of opinions on the  perception of facts • Issues and problems in the past • Multiple points of view • Illustrations in historical stories and sources • Connections between causes and

 

• Author or source of historical narratives

• Causes and results • Author or source used to develop historical narratives • Central issue

results • Author or source of historical narratives’ points of view • Central issue

 

D. Understand historical research. • Event (time and place) • Facts, folklore and fiction • Formation of a historical question  • Primary sources • Secondary sources • Conclusions  (e.g., storytelling, role playing, diorama)

D. Describe and explain historical research. • Historical events (time and place) • Facts, folklore and fiction • Historical questions • Primary sources • Secondary sources • Conclusions (e.g., simulations, group projects, skits and plays)

D. Analyze and interpret historical research. • Historical event (time and place) • Facts, folklore and fiction • Historical questions • Primary sources • Secondary sources • Conclusions (e.g., History Day projects, mock trials, speeches) • Credibility of evidence

D. Synthesize historical research. • Historical event (time and place) • Facts, folklore and fiction • Historical questions • Primary sources • Secondary sources • Conclusions  (e.g., Senior Projects, research papers, debates) • Credibility of evidence

Historical Analysis and Skill Development are learned through and applied to the standards statements and their descriptors for 8.2. Pennsylvania History, 8.3. United States History and 8.4. World History.

 

8.2 Pennsylvania History

8.2.3.  GRADE 3

8.2.6.  GRADE 6

8.2.9.  GRADE 9

8.2.12. GRADE 12

Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to. . .

A. Understand the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to Pennsylvania history.  • William Penn • Benjamin Franklin • Pennsylvanians impacting American Culture (e.g., John Chapman, Richard Allen, Betsy Ross, Mary Ludwig Hayes, Rachel Carson, Elizabeth Jane Cochran, Marian Anderson) • Local historical figures in municipalities and counties. B. Identify and describe primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in Pennsylvania history. • Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Penn’s Charter, Pennsylvania “Declaration of Rights”) • Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., Local historical sites, museum collections, Independence Hall) • Liberty Bell  • Official Commonwealth symbols (e.g., tree, bird, dog, insect)

A. Identify and explain the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to Pennsylvania history from Beginnings to 1824. • Inhabitants (e.g., Native Americans, Europeans, Africans) • Military Leaders (e.g., Anthony Wayne, Oliver H. Perry, John Muhlenberg) • Political Leaders (e.g., William Penn, Hannah Penn, Benjamin Franklin)  • Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Robert Morris, John Bartram, Albert Gallatin) • Innovators and Reformers    (e.g., Society of Friends, Richard Allen, Sybilla Masters) B. Identify and explain primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in Pennsylvania history from Beginnings to 1824. • Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Charter of Privileges, The Gradual Abolition of Slavery Act of 1780, Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer) • Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., Conestoga Wagon, Pennsylvania rifle, Brig Niagara)

A. Analyze the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914. • Political Leaders (e.g., James Buchanan, Thaddeus Stevens, Andrew Curtin)  • Military Leaders (e.g., George Meade, George McClellan, John Hartranft) • Cultural and Commercial Leaders   (e.g., John J. Audubon,  Rebecca Webb Lukens, Stephen Foster) • Innovators and Reformers    (e.g., George Westinghouse, Edwin Drake, Lucretia Mott) B. Identify and analyze primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914.  • Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Pennsylvania Constitutions of 1838 and 1874, The “Gettysburg Address”, The Pittsburgh Survey) • Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., Gettysburg, Eckley Miners’ Village, Drake’s Well)

A. Evaluate the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to Pennsylvania history from 1890 to Present. • Political Leaders (e.g., Gifford Pinchot, Genevieve Blatt, K. Leroy Irvis) • Military Leaders (e.g., Tasker H. Bliss, Henry “Hap” Arnold, George C. Marshall) • Cultural and Commercial Leaders   (e.g., Milton Hershey, Marian Anderson, Fred Rogers)  • Innovators and Reformers    (e.g., Frank Conrad, Rachel Carson, Joseph Rothrock) B. Identify and evaluate primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in Pennsylvania history from 1890 to Present. • Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Constitution of 1968, Silent Spring by Rachel Carson, Pennsylvania historical markers) • Artifacts, Architecture and Historic Places (e.g., 28th Division Shrine, Fallingwater, Levittown, Allegheny Ridge heritage corridor)

 

C. Identify and describe how continuity and change have influenced Pennsylvania history. • Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., Native Americans, early settlers, contemporary religions) • Commerce and Industry (e.g., jobs, trade, environmental change) • Innovations (e.g., technology, ideas, processes) • Politics (e.g., rules, regulations, laws) • Settlement Patterns (e.g., farms, towns, rural communities, cities) • Social Organization  (e.g., relationships of individuals, families, groups, communities; ability to be educated) • Transportation (e.g., methods of moving people and goods over time) • Women’s Movement (e.g., changes in roles and rights over time)  

C. Identify and explain how continuity and change have influenced Pennsylvania history from the Beginnings to 1824. • Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., Native Americans, Quakers) • Commerce and Industry (e.g., iron production, sailing, fur trade) • Innovations (e.g., steam boat, Conestoga Wagon) • Politics (e.g., The Mason-Dixon Line, Pennsylvania’s acquisition and detachment of the “lower three counties,” movements of State capital) • Settlement Patterns (e.g., native settlements, Westward expansion, development of towns) • Social Organization (e.g., trade and development of cash economy, African Methodist Episcopal Church founded, schools in the colony) • Transportation (e.g., trade routes, turnpikes, post roads) • Women’s Movement  (e.g., voting qualifications, role models)

C. Identify and analyze how continuity and change have influenced Pennsylvania history from the 1787 to 1914. • Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., Ephrata Cloister, Harmonists, Amish, immigrant influences) • Commerce and Industry (e.g., mining coal, producing iron, harvesting timber) • Innovations (e.g., John Roebling’s steel cable, steel-tipped plow, improved techniques for making iron, steel and glass) • Politics (e.g., Fugitive Slave Act reaction, canal system legislation, The Free School Act of 1834) • Settlement Patterns (e.g., farms and growth of urban centers) • Social Organization  (e.g., the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition of 1876, prohibition of racial discrimination in schools) • Transportation (e.g., canals, National Road, Thompson’s Horseshoe Curve) • Women’s Movement (e.g., work of the Equal Rights League of Pennsylvania)

C. Identify and evaluate how continuity and change have influenced Pennsylvania history from the 1890s to Present. • Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism) • Commerce and Industry (e.g., work of defense industries, rise and decline of the steel industry, increase of service industries) • Innovations (e.g., polio vaccine, air pollution examined, nuclear power plants) • Politics (e.g., Great Depression special legislative session, creation of the state income tax) • Settlement Patterns (e.g., growth and decline of cities, coal towns, Pittsburgh Renaissance)  • Social Organization (e.g., creation of the State Soil Conservation Commission, First Amendment challenges to education, social services) • Transportation (e.g., Pennsylvania Turnpike, Interstate highways, international airports) • Women’s Movement (e.g., League of Women Voters, Commission on Women) 

 

D. Identify and describe conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in Pennsylvania history. • Domestic Instability (e.g., political, economic and geographic impact on daily activities)  • Ethnic and Racial Relations   (e.g., treatment of various ethnic and racial groups in history) • Labor Relations (e.g., working conditions over time) • Immigration (e.g., diverse groups inhabiting the state) • Military Conflicts (e.g., struggle for control)

D. Identify and explain conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in Pennsylvania history from Beginnings to 1824.  • Domestic Instability (e.g., religious diversity, toleration and conflicts, incursion of the Iroquois) • Ethnic and Racial Relations   (e.g., Penn’s Treaties with Indians, the Underground Railroad, the abolition of slavery) • Labor Relations (e.g., indentured servants, working conditions) • Immigration (e.g., Germans, Irish) • Military Conflicts (e.g., Dutch, Swedish and English struggle for control of land, Wyoming Massacre, The Whiskey Rebellion)

D. Identify and analyze conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in Pennsylvania history from 1787 to 1914. • Domestic Instability (e.g., impact of war, 1889 Johnstown Flood) • Ethnic and Racial Relations   (e.g., Christiana riots, disenfranchisement and restoration of suffrage for African-Americans, Carlisle Indian School) • Labor Relations (e.g., National Trade Union, the “Molly Maguires,” Homestead steel strike) • Immigration (e.g., Anti-Irish Riot of 1844, new waves of immigrants) • Military Conflicts (e.g., Battle of Lake Erie, the Mexican War, the Civil War)

D. Identify and evaluate conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations in Pennsylvania history from 1890 to Present. • Domestic Instability (e.g., The Great Depression, Three-Mile Island nuclear accident, floods of 1936, 1972 and 1977) • Ethnic and Racial Relations   (e.g., segregation, desegregation, racial profiling) • Labor Relations (e.g., strikes, work stoppages, collective bargaining) • Immigration (e.g., increased immigration from Europe, migration of African-Americans from the South, influx of Hispanic and Asian peoples) • Military Conflicts (e.g., World War I, World War II, Persian Gulf War)

Standard Category 8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development should be applied to the above standard statements and descriptors.  Suggested chronology for grade levels 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 focus on a particular century; however, instruction is encouraged that draws on prior and later events in history so that students may develop a seamless view of the world.

 

8.3. United States History

8.3.3.  GRADE 3

8.3.6.  GRADE 6

8.3.9. GRADE 9

8.3.12.  GRADE 12

Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to. . .

A. Identify contributions of individuals and groups to United States history.  • George Washington • Thomas Jefferson • Abraham Lincoln • Theodore Roosevelt • Franklin D. Roosevelt • Individuals who are role models (e.g., Abigail Adams, Sacajawea, Frederick Douglass, Clara Barton, Jackie Robinson, Rosa Parks, Archbishop Patrick Flores, Jamie Escalante, Sally Ride, Tiger Woods, Cal Ripken, Jr., Sammy Sosa)

A. Identify and explain the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to United States history from Beginnings to 1824. • Native Americans, Africans and Europeans • Political Leaders (e.g., John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, John Marshall)  • Military Leaders (e.g. George Washington, Meriwether Lewis, Henry Knox) • Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Paul Revere, Phyllis Wheatley, John Rolfe) • Innovators and Reformers    (e.g., Ann Hutchinson, Roger Williams, Junipero Serra)

A. Identify and analyze the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to United States history from 1787 to 1914. • Political Leaders (e.g., Daniel Webster, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson) • Military Leaders (e.g., Andrew Jackson, Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant)  • Cultural and Commercial Leaders  (e.g., Jane Addams, Jacob Riis, Booker T. Washington) • Innovators and Reformers    (e.g., Alexander G. Bell, Frances E. Willard, Frederick Douglass)

A. Identify and evaluate the political and cultural contributions of individuals and groups to United States history from 1890 to Present. • Political Leaders (e.g., Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt)   • Military Leaders (e.g., John Pershing, Douglas MacArthur, Dwight D. Eisenhower) • Cultural and Commercial Leaders (e.g., Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, Langston Hughes, Alan Greenspan) • Innovators and Reformers    (e.g., Wilbur and Orville Wright, John L. Lewis, Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King)

B. Identify and describe primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in United States history. • Documents (e.g., Declaration of Independence, U.S. Constitution, Bill of Rights) • Writings and Communications (e.g., Pledge of Allegiance, famous quotations and sayings) • Historic Places (e.g., The White House, Mount Rushmore, Statue of Liberty)

B. Identify and explain primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in United States history from Beginnings to 1824. • Documents (e.g., Mayflower Compact, Northwest Ordinance, Washington’s Farewell Address) • 18th Century Writings and Communications (e.g., Paine’s Common Sense; Franklin’s “Join, or die,” Henry’s “Give me liberty or give me death”)

B. Identify and analyze primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in United States history from 1787 to 1914. • Documents (e.g., Fugitive Slave Law, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Emancipation Proclamation) • 19th Century Writings and Communications (e.g., Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Brown’s “Washed by Blood,” Key’s “Star Spangled Banner”) • Historic Places (e.g., The Alamo,

B. Identify and evaluate primary documents, material artifacts and historic sites important in United States history from 1890 to Present. • Documents (e.g., Treaty of Versailles, North Atlantic Treaty, Neutrality Acts)  • 20th Century Writings and Communication (e.g., Coolidge’s “The Business of America is Business,”  King’s “I Have A Dream,” Armstrong’s “One Small Step for Man”)

 

• The Flag of the United States

• Historic Places (e.g., Cahokia Mounds, Spanish Missions, Jamestown)

Underground Railroad sites, Erie Canal) 

• Historic Places (e.g., Ellis Island, Pearl Harbor, Los Alamos)

C. Identify important changes in United States history (e.g., Belief Systems and Religions, Commerce and Industry, Innovations, Politics, Settlement Patterns and Expansion, Social Organization, Transportation, Women’s Movement).

C. Explain how continuity and change has influenced United States history from Beginnings to 1824. • Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., impact on daily life, colonial government established religions, communal sects) • Commerce and Industry (e.g., fur trade, development of cash crops) • Innovations (e.g., cotton gin, Whitney; wooden clock, Banneker; stove, Franklin) • Politics (e.g., Hamilton’s defense of John Peter Zenger, The Great Compromise, Marbury v. Madison) • Settlement Patterns (e.g., frontier settlements, slave plantation society, growth of cities)  • Social Organization  (e.g., community structure on the frontier, cultural and language barriers) • Transportation and Trade (e.g., methods of overland travel, water transportation, National Road) • Women’s Movement (e.g., roles and changing status of women, Margaret Brent’s vote, soldier Deborah Sampson)

C. Analyze how continuity and change has influenced United States history from 1787 to 1914. • Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., 19th century trends and movements) • Commerce and Industry (e.g., growth of manufacturing industries, economic nationalism)   • Innovations (e.g., Brooklyn Bridge, refrigerated shipping, telephone) • Politics (e.g., election of 1860, impeachment of Andrew Johnson, Jim Crow laws)  • Settlement Patterns and Expansion (e.g., Manifest Destiny, successive waves of immigrants, purchase of Alaska and Hawaii)  • Social Organization (e.g., social class differences, women’s rights and antislavery movement, education reforms) • Transportation and Trade (e.g., Pony Express, telegraph, Transcontinental Railroad) • Women’s Movement (e.g., roles in the Civil War, medical college for women, Seneca Falls Conference)

C. Evaluate how continuity and change has influenced United States history from 1890 to Present. • Belief Systems and Religions (e.g., 20th century movements, religions of recent immigrants) • Commerce and Industry (e.g., corporations, conglomerates, multinational corporations) • Innovations (e.g., the Tin Lizzie, radio, World Wide Web) • Politics (e.g., New Deal legislation, Brown v. Topeka, isolationist/non-isolationist debate)  • Settlement Patterns (e.g., suburbs, large urban centers, decline of city population)  • Social Organization  (e.g., compulsory school laws, court decisions expanding individual rights, technological impact) • Transportation and Trade (e.g., expansion and decline of railroads, increased mobility, Internet) • Women’s Movement (e.g., right to vote, women in the war effort, Women’s Peace Party) 

 

D. Identify conflict and cooperation

D. Identify and explain conflict and

D. Identify and analyze conflict and

 

among social groups and organizations

cooperation among social groups and

cooperation among social groups and

D. Identify and evaluate conflict and

in United States history.

organizations in United States history

organizations in United States history

cooperation among social groups

• Domestic Instability (e.g., impact

from Beginnings to 1824.

from 1787 to 1914.

and organizations in United States

on daily activities) 

• Domestic Instability (e.g., Salem

• Domestic Instability      

history from 1890 to the Present.

• Ethnic and Racial Relations  

Witch Trials, Shays Rebellion,

(e.g., wartime confiscation of

• Domestic Instability (e.g., Great

(e.g., treatment of minority groups

religious persecution)

private property, abolitionist

Depression, assassination of

in history)

• Ethnic and Racial Relations  

movement, Reconstruction)

political and social leaders,

• Labor Relations (e.g., working

(e.g., cooperation between and

• Ethnic and Racial Relations  

terrorist threats)

conditions over time) • Immigration (e.g., diverse groups inhabiting the state) • Military Conflicts (e.g., struggle

among Native Americans and European settlers, slave uprisings, “Colored” troops in the Revolution)

(e.g., Cherokee Trail of Tears, slavery and the Underground Railroad, draft riots) • Labor Relations (e.g., female and

• Ethnic and Racial Relations   (e.g., internment camps for Japanese Americans, Montgomery Alabama Bus

for control)

• Labor Relations (e.g., early union efforts, 10-hour day, women’s role) • Immigration and Migration (e.g., western settlements, Louisiana Purchase, European immigration) • Military Conflicts (e.g., French and Indian War, American Revolutionary War, War of 1812)

child labor, trade unionism, strike breakers) • Immigration and Migration (e.g., Manifest Destiny, eastern and southern European immigration, Chinese Exclusion Act) • Military Conflicts (e.g., Native American opposition to expansion and settlement, Civil War, Spanish-American War)

Boycott, land tensions with Native Americans) • Labor Relations (e.g., rise and decline of industrial unions, free trade agreements, imports impact on domestic employment) • Immigration and Migration (e.g., anti-immigrant attitudes, quota laws, westward and southward migration)

 

 

 

• Military Conflicts    (e.g., World War I, World War II, War on Terrorism)

Standard Category 8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development should be applied to the above standard statements and descriptors.  Suggested chronology for grade levels 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 focus on a particular century; however, instruction is encouraged that draws on prior or later events in history so that students may develop a seamless view of the world.

 

8.4. World History 8.4.3.  GRADE 3 8.4.6. GRADE 6 8.4.9.  GRADE 9 8.4.12.  GRADE 12 Pennsylvania’s public schools shall teach, challenge and support every student to realize his or her maximum potential and to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to analyze cultural, economic, geographic, political and social relations to...

A. Identify individuals and groups who

A. Identify and explain how individuals

A. Analyze the significance of individuals

A. Evaluate the significance of

have made significant political and

and groups made significant political

and groups who made major political

individuals and groups who made

cultural contributions to world history. 

and cultural contributions to world

and cultural contributions to world

major political and cultural

• Africa (e.g., Nefertiti, Mansa

history.

history before 1500. 

contributions to world history since

Musa, Nelson Mandela)

• Africa (e.g., Nelson Mandela,

• Political and Military Leaders 

1450.

• Americas (e.g., Montezuma,

Desmond Tutu, F. W. de Klerk,

(e.g., King Ashoka, Montezuma I,

• Political and Military Leaders 

Simon Bolivar, Fidel Castro)

Pieter Botha, African National

Ghenghis Khan, William the

(e.g., Askia Daud, Simon Bolivar, 

• Asia (e.g., Hammurabi, Mohandas

Congress)

Conqueror)

Napoleon Bonaparte, Mao

Gandhi, Benazir Bhutto) 

• Americas (e.g., Pizarro,

• Cultural and Commercial Leaders

Zedong)

• Europe (e.g., Julius Ceasar, Joan

Atahualpa, Aztecs, Incas,

(e.g., Mansa Musa, Yak Pac,

• Cultural and Commercial

of Arc, Pope John Paul)

Montezuma, Cortez) • Asia (e.g., Tokugawa Ieyasu, Toyotomi clan, shogun Iemitsu, Commodore Perry, daimyo) • Europe (e.g., Pope Leo X, John Calvin, John Wesley, Martin Luther, Ignatius of Loyola)  

Cheng Ho, Marco Polo) • Innovators and Reformers    (e.g., Erastostenes, Tupac Inka Yupenqui, Johannes Gutenberg)

Leaders (e.g., Chinua Achebe, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Akira Kurosawa, Christopher Columbus) •  Innovators and Reformers    (e.g., Nelson Mandela, Louis-Joseph Papineau, Mohandas

B. Identify historic sites and material

 

B. Analyze historical documents, material

Gandhi, Alexander Fleming) 

artifacts important to world history.

B. Identify and explain important

artifacts and historic sites important to

 

• Africa (e.g., Pyramids, treasures of Tutankhamen, Nefertiti’s sculpture)

documents, material artifacts and historic sites in world history. • Africa (e.g., Prohibition of

world history before 1500. • Documents, Writings and Oral Traditions (e.g., Rosetta Stone,

B. Evaluate historical documents, material artifacts and historic sites important to world history since 1450.

• Americas (e.g., Olmec ritualistic

Marriages Act, prison on Robben

Aztec glyph writing, Dead Sea

• Documents, Writings and Oral

centers, Mayan pyramids,

Island)

Scrolls, Magna Carta)

Traditions (e.g., Declaration of the

arrowheads)

• Americas (e.g., Tenochtitlan,

• Artifacts, Architecture and

International Conference on

• Asia (e.g., Code of Hammurabi, Ziggurat at Ur, canals) • Europe (e.g., ancient megaliths, Arc de Triomphe, Acropolis)

Aztec masks)  • Asia (e.g., samurai sword, Commodore Perry’s Black Ships) • Europe (e.g., Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses, Wittenberg Castle Church) 

Historic Places (e.g., Ethiopian rock churches, Mayan pyramids, Nok terra cotta figures, megaliths at Stonehenge) • Historic districts (e.g., Memphis

Sanctions Against South Africa; Monroe Doctrine, Communist Manifesto, Luther’s Ninety-five Theses) • Artifacts, Architecture and

 

 

and its Necropolis, Sanctuary of

Historic Places (e.g., Robben Island, New York World Trade

 

C. Compare similarities and differences between earliest civilizations and life today (e.g., Africa, Egypt; Asia, Babylonia; Americas, Olmec; Europe, Neolithic settlements). D. Identify how conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations affected world history. • Domestic Instability (e.g., political, economic and geographic impact on normal activities)  • Labor Relations (e.g., working conditions over time) • Racial and Ethnic Relations (e.g., treatment of various ethnic

C. Identify and explain how continuity and change has affected belief systems, commerce and industry, innovations, settlement patterns, social organizations, transportation and women’s roles in world history. • Africa (e.g., Apartheid) • Americas (e.g., European conquest) • Asia (e.g., Japanese society prior to the Meiji Restoration) • Europe (e.g., Impact of the Great Schism and Reformation) D. Explain how conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations affected world history. • Africa (e.g., imperialism) • Americas (e.g., European diseases) • Asia (e.g., trade routes) • Europe (e.g., Counter reformation)

Machu Picchu, Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls, Centre of Rome and the Holy See) C. Analyze how continuity and change throughout history has impacted belief systems and religions, commerce and industry, innovations, settlement patterns, social organization, transportation and roles of women before 1500. • Africa • Americas  • Asia • Europe D. Analyze how conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations impacted world history through 1500 in Africa, Americas, Asia and Europe.  • Domestic Instability  • Ethnic and Racial Relations   • Labor Relations  • Immigration and Migration • Military Conflicts 

Center, Hiroshima Ground Zero Memorial, Nazi concentration camps) • Historic districts (e.g., Timbuktu, Centre of Mexico City and Xochimilco, Taj Mahal and Gardens, Kremlin and Red Square)   C. Evaluate how continuity and change throughout history has impacted belief systems and religions, commerce and industry, innovations, settlement patterns, social organization, transportation and roles of women since 1450. • Africa • Americas  • Asia • Europe D. Evaluate how conflict and cooperation among social groups and organizations impacted world history from 1450 to Present in Africa, Americas, Asia and Europe. • Domestic Instability       • Ethnic and Racial Relations  

and racial groups in history) • Immigration and migration  (e.g., diverse groups inhabiting a territory) • Military Conflicts (e.g., struggle for control)

 

 

• Labor Relations  • Immigration and Migration • Military Conflicts  

Standard Category 8.1. Historical Analysis and Skills Development should be applied to the above standard statements and descriptors.  Suggested chronology in organizing the content for grade levels 7-9 and 10-12 use the 15th century as the dividing point; however, instruction is encouraged that draws on prior and later events in history so that students may develop a seamless view of the world.

 

XXIV. GLOSSARY

Artifact:

Any object made by human work or skill.

Beginnings

A demarcation of time designating studies to commence with the written historical record.

Central issue:

The primary concern from which other problems or matters are derived. For example, today’s world migration flows are a central issue from which other concerns such as terrorist threats may arise.

Chronology:

The science of measuring time and of dating events.  Examples include BCE (before the common era) and CE (common era). Another reference to chronology is CA, around the time, circa.

Conflict:

The opposition of persons or groups that gives rise to dramatic action.  Such actions could include the use of force as in combat.

Culture:

The skills and arts of a given people in a given period of time or a civilization.

Document:

Anything written or printed used to record or prove something.

Historical evidence:

Something that makes something else noticeable, obvious or evident.

Historical passage:

An article or section of a longer work that has importance to the past.

Innovation:

The introduction of something new; an idea, method or device.

Interpretation:

Explanation or to reply to a situation in order to make sense of it (e.g., a time period, an individual’s actions).

Memorial:

An object or ceremony serving as a remembrance for a person, group, day, site or event.

Museum: A historical display in a building, room, etc. for exhibiting artistic, historical or scientific objects. Present: A demarcation of time designating studies to the current year. Opinion: A belief based not on certainty but on what seems to be true or probable. Strike: A work stoppage by employees organized against the management of a business entity. Time lines: Measures of a period during which something exists or happens; usually displayed in chronological order on a graph or linear lines. War: A conflict in which two or more nations or two or more identities inside a nation are at odds. Xenophobia: An intense fear or dislike of groups unknown or not within one's experience including the group’s